Background. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious cause of acute kidney injury in children. There is a suggestion that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be a trigger for HUS. In this study, we present a pediatric case diagnosed with HUS associated with COVID-19, which progressed to end-stage kidney disease.

Case. A previously healthy 13-year-old girl with fever and vomiting was referred to our hospital. Laboratory investigations revealed direct Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment accompanied by COVID-19 infection. Although anemia and thrombocytopenia showed improvement on the seventh day after admission, the renal impairment persisted. The histopathological findings of a renal biopsy were compatible with both HUS and COVID-19. One month later, the patient had a recurrence of HUS, again testing positive for COVID-19. Kidney function improved with plasma exchange therapy. Eculizumab treatment was recommenced after COVID-19 PCR became negative. Anemia and thrombocytopenia did not recur with eculizumab, while renal impairment persisted. Eculizumab was discontinued after three months when genetic analysis for HUS was negative. Subsequently, the patient was diagnosed with end-stage kidney disease.

Conclusions. COVID-19 can be associated with HUS relapses, leading to chronic kidney disease. Further studies should investigate the mechanism of HUS associated with COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, chronic kidney disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, SARS-CoV-2

How to cite

Sürmeli Döven S, Danacı Vatansever E, Yuyucu Karabulut Y, Özgökçe Özmen B, Durak F, Delibaş A. A pediatric case with hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with COVID-19, which progressed to end-stage kidney disease. Turk J Pediatr 2024; 66: 251-256. https://doi.org/10.24953/turkjpediatr.2024.4524


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